Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Poh Boon-Sing's new book on missiology

I got a copy in the mail last week of my friend Poh Boon-Sing's new book on missiology: World Missions Today: A Theological, Exegetical, and Practical Perspective on Missions (Good News Enterprise, 2019): 277 pp. I look forward to reading and writing a review.

Back cover:

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

2 Ephesians?

Image: Ruins of the Roman era Library of Celsus in ancient Ephesus.

I was continuing to read D. B. Hart’s translation of the NT yesterday and in Ephesians  3:3-4 I was struck by Paul’s reference to his previous writings to the recipients. This is a passage I had read before but not given much notice. Paul is discussing his special calling to make known the “mystery” of Christ. Here it is in the KJV:

Ephesians 3:3 How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote [from prographō] afore in few words,

4 Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ)

The question is what Paul is referring to when he speaks of what he had written before. 

Was he speaking of the previous content found in the opening two chapters? This was Matthew Poole’s deduction: “As I wrote afore; in the two former chapters of this Epistle.”

An alternative possibility is that this refers to an earlier letter. Compare Paul’s reference in 2 Corinthians 2:4 to his previous “painful” letter to the church at Corinth and the various theories of 2 Corinthians being a composite of several letters suggested in the modern period. Consider also the reference in Colossians 4:16 to the "lost" letter to the Laodiceans.

Calvin could say in his time that this was “the general opinion”: “As I wrote a little before. This refers either to a rapid glance at the same subject in the second chapter, or—which appears to be the general opinion—to another Epistle.”

We might well ask what the writing was that Paul mentions in Ephesians 3:3-4? Was it what we might call "1 Ephesians", with what we know as “Ephesians” better considered as “2 Ephesians” [I am leaving aside the whole question about whether “at Ephesus” in Eph 1:1 belongs to the authentic text. I, of course, assume it does.]? Was it a letter or something else? A first-hand account of his conversion and calling? A sermon or doctrinal tract? Theologically speaking, one would assume that this “1 Ephesians”, whatever it was, was uninspired, or it would have been included in the canon. Or, could it refer to another inspired, canonical book, or portion of a book, shared with the Ephesians, in which Paul discussed these matters (Acts 9? Galatians 1-2? etc.)? I’m not sure we’ll ever be able to answer this question in this age.


Monday, January 28, 2019

Calvin on Cyprian on Christian Unity

I preached Sunday on Christ’s prayer for future disciples as part of his High Priestly prayer (John 17:20-26). A good bit of focus was given to Christ’s prayer for unity: “That they all may be one….” (v. 21). I’ve also been re-reading Calvin’s book IV of the Institutes and had just been looking at Calvin’s defense of the Protestant movement against charges of it being schismatic in chapter 2. Ever since I ran into Dr. Anthony Lane at the Calvin Congress last August I’ve been intrigued by Calvin’s use of the Church Fathers. I had picked out Calvin’s quotation from Cyprian to share in the sermon on Sunday but did not get time to use it, so I thought I’d share it here (from Institutes 4.2.6):
Cyprian, also following Paul, derives the source of concord of the entire church from Christ’s episcopate alone. Afterward he adds:
The church is one, which is spread abroad far and wide into a multitude by an increase of fruitfulness. As there are many rays of the sun but one light, and many branches of a tree but one strong trunk grounded in its tenacious root, and since from one spring flow many streams, although a goodly number seem outpoured from their bounty and superabundance, still at the source unity abides. Take a ray from the body of the sun; its unity undergoes no division. Break a branch from a tree; the severed branch cannot sprout. Cut off a stream from its source; cut off, it dries up. So also the church, bathed in the light of the Lord, extends over the whole earth: yet there is one light diffused everywhere.
Nothing more fitting could be said to express this indivisible connection which all members of Christ have with one another.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

WM 116: Review: Authorized: The Use & Misuse of the King James Bible

I have uploaded WM 116: Review: Authorized: The Use & Misuse of the King James Bible.

In this episode I give an expanded spoken version of my written review of Mark Ward, Authorized: The Use & Misuse of the King James Bible (Lexham Press, 2018): 154 pp.

Some might recall my review of an online article by Ward in WM 100: Rejoinder to Mark Ward; Three Ways to Engage Modern Translation Onlyism.

In WM 116 I make reference to Ward's June 12, 2018 at the FIFB on The Legitimate Concerns of the Next Generation. For other messages at that 2018 FBFI conference look here.

I also note, a new companion video to the book also called Authorized, which you can read about and find a link to here on Ward's blog.

Ward's case against contemporary use of the KJV is primarily based on an argument that it is no longer adequately intelligible for modern readers.

Here are the four objections to the book's thesis I cover in the review:

First, Ward’s rhetoric against the KJV is inconsistent and unconvincing...

Second, Ward’s arguments against the KJV’s intelligibility are not compelling...

Third, Ward wrongly overlooks the significance of textual matters in evaluating both the KJV and modern translations....

Fourth, Ward’s approach assumes that the problem of understanding the Bible can largely be explained by naturalistic reasons, rather than supernaturalistic ones....

And the two closing paragraphs:

In conclusion, this critique of the KJV is unusual in that it does not come from a Calvinistic evangelical perspective (like previous popular works by D. A. Carson [1978] and James White [1995]), but from one with a fundamentalist background. This likely reflects an unease by at least some in those circles, like Ward, who do not wish to be stigmatized by their tribe’s use of the KJV or, worse yet, to be given the dreaded label of “KJV-Onlyists.” The question remains, however, as to whether one should abandon use of the KJV merely because some wrongly hold a fetishist view of this translation, or because some who prefer it are falsely labeled as KJV-Onlyist.

Ward does not convince this reviewer that the KJV is not “sufficiently readable” and thus inadequate for use as a “main translation.” Few would object that it might be profitable to compare various translations in personal study. It is better still to know the Biblical languages. This does not mean, however, that the KJV has lost its readability and relevancy, or that it must be replaced by those who prefer it.


Friday, January 25, 2019

The Vision (1.25.19): Christ’s Prayer for the Unity of the Apostles

Image: Fellowship at CRBC (1.20.19)

Note: Devotion taken from last Sunday's sermon on John 17:6-19.
And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one, as we are (John 17:11).
In Christ’s High Priestly Prayer, the Lord Jesus prays especially for his original disciples, the apostles (see John 17:6-19).
In v. 11, Christ prays that the Father will keep the apostles, that is, that he will help them to persevere in the faith. He then prays that they will be given unity: “that they may be one, as we are” (v. 11b). He asks the Father to give the apostles the same unity that is enjoyed by the Father and the Son within the triune Godhead. He offers this petition for the original disciples, even as he will make a similar request for future generations of disciples later in this prayer (see v. 21: “That they all may be one….”).
Consider for just a second, how Christ’s prayer for unity among the apostles was answered by the Father.  After the death, burial, resurrection, and ascension of Christ, the body of believers was not divided into eleven or twelve different movements, but one movement. The apostles remained united in Christ.
Think about the opening chapter of 1 Corinthians when Paul says that he has heard that believers have been divided into factions, with some saying, I follow Paul, others saying, I follow Cephas [Peter], others, I follow Apollos [a gifted early teacher], and some, I follow Christ (see 1 Cor 1:12).
Paul’s response is brilliant. He does not say, Tell those who follow Peter to get in line and begin to follow me! No, he says, “Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul?” (v. 13).
Why were the apostles able to have unity? Because they did not want any glory for themselves, but they wanted to give all the glory to Christ alone. And they had this in answer to Christ’s intercession for them.
Christ prayed for unity among the apostles and that prayer was answered by the Father. May he continue to keep and to give unity to those of us who have come to believe in Christ through their word.
Grace and peace, Pastor Jeff Riddle

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Audio Posted of Preface to Scrivener's Greek New Testament (1881)

Related to discussion in WM 114 about Scrivener's Greek NT being based on Beza's printed TR of 1598, I have uploaded an audio version of Scrivener's Preface to The New Testament in Greek According to the Text Followed in the Authorized Version Together with the Variations Adopted in the Revised Version (Cambridge University Press, 1881, 1949): pp. v-vi. Listen to the audio here.


Friday, January 18, 2019

The Vision (1.18.19): Christ's Posture in Prayer

Image: North Garden, Virginia, January 18, 2019
Note: Devotion taken from sermon on John 17:1-5 from 12/30/18.
These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee (John 17:1).
We learn about fitting prayer through Christ’s actions and example as he begins his High Priestly Prayer (John 17).
His prayer was one spoken aloud: “These words spake Jesus….” There is a place for quiet prayer, for meditation, for speaking from the heart for only God to hear, but there is also a place for spoken prayer. Prayer is preeminently vertical, but when spoken aloud it is also horizontal, meant to exhort and encourage others. Christ spoke in this prayer to the Father, but he spoke also to his disciples.
And he “lifted up his eyes to heaven.” We usually think of prayer with eyes closed and head bowed, but Christ prayed with his eyes open and his head uplifted to the Father. Scripture gives warrant for many ways to express prayer. In Luke 18:13 Jesus says that the publican when he prayed, “would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven.” In 1 Timothy 2:8 Paul speaks of men praying everywhere “lifting up holy hands.”
Calvin notes that Christ’s posture indicates “an uncommon ardor and vehemence.” He adds that it was fitting for Christ to pray in this manner “for he had nothing about him of which he ought to be ashamed.”
Calvin also says that when we pray we should not be so much concerned with the “outward gesture” as “the inward feeling” which directs “the eyes, the hands, the tongue, and everything about us.”
Let us learn from Christ’s example in prayer, as in all things.
Grace and peace, Pastor Jeff Riddle

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Book Note: Calvin's Doctrine of the Knowledge of God

T. H. L. Parker, Calvin’s Doctrine of the Knowledge of God (Eerdmans, 1952; Wipf and Stock reprint, 2015): 128 pp.

This essay consists of two parts. Part One is on “The Knowledge of the Creator” and Part Two on “The Knowledge of the Redeemer.” This reflects the design of the opening two books of the Institutes, since “The first books deals with the knowledge of the Creator; the second with the Knowledge of the Redeemer” (2). For Parker, the Institutes is the “chief source for our understanding Calvin’s doctrine of the Knowledge of God” (3).

Some notes from Part One: The Knowledge of the Creator:

Parker begins by contrasting the beginnings of Calvin’s Institutes and Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologica and his famous five proofs for the existence of God.

“Calvin, however, presupposes the existence of God, on the very ground, the validity of which St. Thomas denies, that men have an innate knowledge of the existence of God” (7).

For Calvin all men have a sensus divinitas. “All men, even atheists, the grossly wicked and the complacent bourgeois, know that there is a God” (8). Thus, he does not need to argue for God’s existence.

“The problem of the Knowledge of God is the problem of revelation” (13).

God reveals himself in the opera Dei, the works of God, “by which Calvin means all the creative and providential activity of God” (14).

Parker: “We shall be disappointed if we look for disparagement of man in the pages of Calvin” (16).

“For Calvin the creation has no meaning in itself, apart from the Creator” (17).

“The universe is a mirror in which is to be seen the effigies Dei, the portrait of God…. Thus, in creating the universe God made it a representation of himself” (18).

“For Calvin, history—public and private—is not a confused miscellany of events and actions” (21).

“Man in his created state of purity was capable of the knowledge of God…. But such a soul and mind ceased when Adam fell” (27).

“When the seed of religion is cherished man is not led by it to the true worship of God, but into superstition or idolatry…. In this lies the abuse of the sensus divinitatis” (31).

“Although the universe does show forth God’s glory, man is too blind to see it” (35).

Thus the oracula Dei (as Calvin was fond of calling the Scriptures) are necessary to the understanding of the opera Dei” (39).

“Calvin tells us, on the basis of the Biblical witness, that the faculty of perceiving the Creator in His works is not merely impaired, but lost; that man is not suffering from bad eyesight, but from total blindness” (39).

Parker says Calvin’s “Rational Proofs to Confirm Belief in the Scriptures” (Inst. 1.8) “collectively constitute a blemish on Calvin’s doctrine of the Word of God which has had for its progeny the busyness of fundamentalists to prove the truth of the bible to the neglect of discovering and preaching the Truth of the Bible” (43)!

Parker cites Peter Barth calling the Institutes “Calvin’s forefinger, pointing to the Scriptures” (45).

“Therefore, he regards the Scriptures as a school, the Holy Spirit as a schoolmaster, and believers as the pupils” (46-47).

“The Scripture is a thread, guiding us though the labyrinth, the enigma of the universe in which we live” (48).

“The oracula Dei both confirm the opera Dei and in turn are confirmed by them” (51).

Some notes from Part Two: The Knowledge of the Redeemer:

Parker begins with Calvin’s “perfectly orthodox” view of the Trinity from the first edition of the Institutes (61).

He also notes that “Calvin’s knowledge of patristic theology was not extensive” (61) and that “new quotations from the Fathers” were “being continually added” to succeeding editions of the Institutes (62). The 1536 edition “is not remarkable for its dependence on the past. Only 5 Fathers are directly cited: Ambrose (once), Augustine (ten times), Jerome, Sozomenus and Tertullian (one each)” (62, n. 3).

“The identification of Jesus of Nazareth with the eternal Word of God, made by faith on the authority of the Scriptural witness, means that He is regarded as the valid revelation of God” (70).

“Jesus of Nazareth is the revelation of God” (74).

“For Christ is called the image of God on this ground, that He makes God, in a manner, visible to us” (75).

“Calvin thus regards the death of Christ as the summa, the intensive focal point, of His life, and hence places the emphasis upon it, but comprehending and not excluding the rest of His life and actions” (86).

“We are not saved by contemplating Christ from a distance, but by being united with Him…” (91).

“For Thomism, the knowledge of God is a part of epistemology; i.e., it is a part of our general knowledge and differs from other sorts of knowledge in that its object is different. For Calvin, however, the knowing itself differs from general knowing” (101, n. 3).

“There is, then, according to Calvin, a certain knowledge which precedes and begets faith; which is indeed a praeparatio fidei” (102).

“The knowledge of God cannot be regarded as one of the branches of epistemology, but differs fundamentally from all other forms of knowing” (106).

“Knowing God is a unique activity in man’s experience, having its own categories” (106).

“The fall, for the Thomists (although by making a closer connection between the nature of man and the dona superaddita than the Scotists, they were committed to holding that the loss of the one meant at least the impairing of the other) was not the irreparable cataclysm of human nature that it was for the Reformers. Whatever qualifications are made, the final Thomist word is that man’s soul is wounded, but not dead” (107).

On the debate as to whether Calvin held the analogia entis, see 109 ff.

“…Calvin admits a certain likeness between the mind of man and the mind of God” (109).

“Calvin does not use this likeness between God and man in the way that Thomism and Calvinism do” (110).

Man has not lost his “natural endowments” but his “supernatural endowments” (111).

Finally, the book has an Appendix: a book review of E. A. Downey, The Knowledge of God in Calvin’s Theology (1952).

Parker does not approve of Downey’s view of Calvin on creation and revelation:

“There can be no doubt that Calvin must be cleared of any charge of being a natural theologian, or of having an ‘apologetic’ programme” (125).


Monday, January 14, 2019

WM 115: Review: Beza and Revelation 16:5

I have uploaded WM 115: Review: "Beza and Revelation 16:5" (Listen here). This episode has three parts: (1) Introduction; (2) A review of the online article "Beza and Revelation 16:5"; and (3) Three Final Thoughts/Reflections.


In WM 114 I offered ten observations on a recent lecture from apologist JW on “Text Criticism and the TR” which ended up being a review of a twitter exchange between JW and someone going under the name “Textus Receptus” regarding the text of Revelation 16:5, which is one of just a few places where there is significant divided reading in the printed editions of the TR. Beza’s 1598 TR reads “which art, and wast, and shalt be” (so rendered in the KJV), whereas earlier editions like Erasmus’ 1516 TR reads “which art, and wast,…and holy” (as in Tyndale, Geneva Bible, etc.).

Gathering from what I heard by email and text this was a much-discussed topic last week.

I discovered a couple things:

First: The twitter disputant with JW is a fellow from Australia named Nick Sayers.

Second: Nick has written an over 80-page booklet titled Revelation 16:5 and the Triadic Declaration in response to JW’s views on Revelation 16:5, which provides some background to the twitter exchange.

Third: One of Nick’s key sources for his booklet is an online article on the website titled “Beza and Revelation 16:5” (about 16 pages in length in a printer friendly version).

So, I thought it would be helpful to read this shorter article first and offer a review of and some reflections upon it.

This is a very well written and thoughtful article—hardly the mad ravings of the straw-man KJV Onlyist—though I do wish it had a name, date, and some better documentation, at points, of sources cited.

The article makes a generally reasonable and compelling argument as to why Beza’s reading at Revelation 16:5 should be taken seriously and not simply discarded or rejected without critical examination (and certainly not villainized, as JW does). There are also, however, some weaker and less compelling arguments within the article.

Review of online article: “Beza and Revelation 16:5”:

Here is a review of some of what I see as the stronger and weaker points made within the article:

First: Nice introductory statement:

“Since there is no existing manuscript with Beza's reading, critics dismiss Beza's reading as an unwarranted conjectural emendation.  However, an in-depth study of the issue will reveal enough evidence to validate Beza's conjectural emendation.”

Second: It provides an English translation of Beza’s footnote, but does not provide a transliteration of the original Latin note or identify the translator (the author? His credentials for making the translation?).

One of the things I would be most interested to know is whether Beza made a pure conjectural emendation or if he had some manuscript evidence to support this reading.

The article observes: “Although Beza is silent, he could have been influenced in making his change based on a minority Latin textual variant.  There are two Latin commentaries with readings of Revelation 16:5 which agree with Beza in referring to the future aspect of God.”

These are later identified as Beatus of Liebana (c. 8th century) and Haimo Halberstadensis (9th century).

Third: It provides references to two Church Fathers who made use of the Greek term ho esomenos in reference to God: Clement of Alexandria (third century), The Stromata, V.6; and Gregory of Nyssa (fourth century), On the Baptism of Christ (no reference notion given).

I agree that this information is by no means a “red herring.”

Fourth:  It rightly stresses the fact that the text of Revelation was perhaps the most corrupted of the NT books through the transmission process, and this has ramifications that would perhaps argue in favor of emendation [Though I’d still rather leave it as an open question as to whether Beza’s emendation was a “pure” conjecture].

 Opening statement here: “Conjectural emendations are justified if we know that the text we are dealing with has a history of extensive and early corruption. The book of Revelation is such a text… We trust that God was able to preserve the true reading of Revelation 16:5 until the advent of the printing press during the Reformation.”

Fifth: A good point was made related to a scribal error in p47 at Revelation 15:4 omitting the word “holy”: “If there is evidence of a scribal error involving "οσιος" at Revelation 15:4, it seems reasonable to suspect a scribal error involving the same word just one chapter later at Revelation 16:5.”

Sixth: Excellent point made about the parallel omission of kai ho erchomenos in the modern critical or Majority texts at Revelation 11:17, but, in this case, there is supporting Greek evidence for the TR reading.

Seventh: The article rightly points out the paucity of extant early mss. evidence for Revelation. It states that there are only 4 ms. of Rev 16:4 from before the tenth century and that p47 is the only papyrus ms. to include Rev 16:5.

I made a similar point in WM 114 in observation # 8 citing, Tobias Niklas, “The Early Text of Revelation” in Charles E. Hill & Michael J. Kruger, Eds., The Early Text of the New Testament (Oxford, 2012): 225-238.

I think the article errs, however, in suggesting a degenerating chain from

p47 kai hosios
to Sinaiticus ho hosios
to Alexandrinus hosios

This is speculative and assumes without proof a connection between these three mss. These changes are more likely to have evolved independently.

Eighth: The article provides four theories for how Revelation 16:5 might have become corrupted.

Theory 1: John wrote ho esomenos in nomen sacrum from.
Theory 2: Bad conditions gave rise to corruption.
Theory 3: A scribe harmonized 16:5 with 11:17.
Theory 4: A Hebraist imposed Hebraic style onto the text.

Of these I find Theories 2 and 3 to be credible, and Theories 1 and 4 to be suspect.
Theory 1 is highly speculative. Examples:

“Perhaps the Apostle John himself wrote the words that refer to God in "κυριε ει ο ων και ο ην και ο εσομενος" (O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be) in an abbreviated nomina sacra form.”

“In nomen sacrum form, ‘ο εσομενος’ might be abbreviated as OЄC.”

The problem: This seems highly speculative to me. Just note how many times the words “may” “perhaps” or “might” is used by the article’s author. This is not one of the usual nomina sacra and there are no extant examples of it (see James Snapp’s online article). The argument for this in Sinaiticus without overlining seems strained to me.

Theory 4 based on the suggestion that Jewish readers would have taken the future participle as superfluous to indicating the name of God also seems strained and speculative.

Three Final Thoughts/Reflections:

First: Revelation 16:5, the Textus Receptus, and the KJV

Interpretation of Revelation 16:5 raises the question of what the standard text of the TR should be.

I think there is room in the TR camp both for those who follow the Erasmus/Tyndale reading and those who follow the Beza/KJV reading here.

I think the best reasons to accept the Beza/KJV reading at Revelation 16:5 are the following:

-The text of Revelation was corrupted in its early transmission and it is admitted by all to be difficult to reconstruct.

-p47 at least provides evidence for the conjunction kai in the earliest extant mss.

-Internal evidence in Revelation argues for a three-fold description of God as present, past, future (see Rev 1:4, 8; 4:8; and 11:17).

-The reading ho esomenos, however, argues for originality, in part, based on its uniqueness. If invented for the purposes of harmonization why would it not have read ho erchomenos, as at Rev 1:4, 8; 4:8; and 11:17?

-We do not completely understand all the evidence and reasoning of Beza and the KJV translators in choosing this reading, but we might reasonably assume they had compelling reasons to adopt it, especially since it went against the tide of respected earlier editions of the TR and, especially, English translations of it.

-One can see the inclusion of this reading in the KJV as of providential importance without arguing for the KJV as a product of special revelation (a view which would be contrary to WCF 1:8).

Second: On the most difficult to defend TR readings and the propriety of conjectures:

I think that in general we would prefer to have TR readings supported by at least some extant Greek NT mss, even if they represent a minority of mss., which may also be late mss. In addition, we would prefer to have early versional and Patristic evidence. Thankfully, we usually have this.

We should recognize, however, that the NT books which were acknowledged the latest in the canonical recognition process will provide the least sufficient and reliable extant evidence. Our most difficult texts to defend will not most generally be with the Gospels or Pauline epistles but with Acts, the Catholic Epistles, and Revelation.

This admission goes against a standard conservative evangelical apologetic which has typically stressed the great number of existing NT mss. whatever their date, content, and condition.

Finally, this raises the question of the propriety of conjectures. As the author of the article noted, this was not a problem of Bruce Metzger (see the quote in the article from The Text of the NT, 182). It is not a problem for the modern editors of the NA28 using the CBGM (see the rendering of 2 Peter 3:10). So, it is affirmed in both modern and post-modern text criticism.

This brought to my mind the modern historical-critical study of the Synoptic Gospels and the conjecture of a hypothetical reconstructed sayings source Q. Such a view is embraced by evangelical scholars like Craig A Evans, who argued for the “two source” in the recent book The Synoptic Gospel: Four Views (Baker Academic, 2016). I find it ironic that Evans’s and others’s embrace of Q (an entire hypothetical book with no external support) does not raise an eyebrow, while Beza’s supposed conjecture of perhaps few words in Revelation 16:5 is pilloried as outrageous and absurd?

This is another reason I was puzzled by JW’s stated rejection of any conjectural emendations. Does this mean he rejects Metzger? The CBGM? The NA28, 29, 30…?

Third: On Method:

First, I think the historical study of the text of the Bible (textual criticism) is vital and a discipline from which we have nothing to fear. Second, I think defenders of the TR can and should make able use of historical evidence yielded by this field of study. Given this, however, I also think we should be careful not to fall into the trap of thinking we might simply use the modern reconstructionist method to defend the TR. This is perhaps the biggest problem I perceive with the article reviewed. It does not explicitly rely on a confessional method. If you try to fight the modern “methodists” only with their method, in their eyes you will always come up short.

I thought this comment from Maurice Robinson on the Evangelical Text Criticism blog related to the discussion of my review of the THGNT (here) was perceptive:

In terms of attempting to establish the original text (or the Ausgangstext if one is so inclined), a "TR-priority" position indeed is illogical, as Mr Spock would say. 

However, within the "Confessional Bibliology" or "Ecclesiastical Text" framework, holding such a position actually appears quite reasonable to its practitioners, much in the same way that the Greek Orthodox church remains quite content to use a form of the 1904/1912 Antoniades text for all their practical purposes, even though from a more scientific text-critical standpoint (including my own) their position is equally defective.


Friday, January 11, 2019

The Vision (1.11.19): The Power of Christ

Image: North Garden, Virginia, January 2019
Note: Devotion taken from sermon on 12/30/18 on John 17:1-5.
As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him (John 17:2).
Within his High Priestly Prayer, Christ addresses the Father, “As thou hast given him [the Son, a reference to himself] power [exousia, authority] over all flesh….” (v. 2a)
Compare the risen Christ’s words to his apostles in Matthew 28:18: “All power [exousia] is given unto me in heaven and on earth.”
This authority is a special exercise of sovereign power which the Father has bestowed upon the Son from eternity past. It is the power of salvation: “that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him” (v. 2b).
Notice it is not: “that he should give eternal life to all men without exception on the condition of their free will acceptance of the gospel.” No, the Son has been given authority by the Father to give eternal life to those who have been given to the Son. The Father gives them to the Son (election) and the Son gives to them eternal life (salvation). This is God’s plan of salvation from eternity past. Those whom the Father sovereignly chooses, the Son perfectly saves.
Compare Luke’s description in Acts 13:48b of Paul and Barnabas’s ministry in Pisidian Antioch: “And as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.”
Calvin observed: “it is only the elect who belong to his peculiar flock, which he has undertaken to guard as shepherd.” Though his kingdom extends to all men, “it brings salvation to none but the elect.”
Let us then consider with thanksgiving Christ’s power: If we are counted among the elect of God and have been saved by his grace, it has only been by the power of Christ.
Grace and peace, Pastor Jeff Riddle

Wednesday, January 09, 2019

Alford's Greek New Testament

I was preaching last Sunday at the RB church plant in Lynchburg and after services one of the brethren gave me a late Christmas present he had picked up at a used bookstore, a six book set of the four volumes of Henry Alford's Greek New Testament and Commentary.

In Metzger and Ehrman's The Text of the New Testament it is noted that Henry Alford (1810-1871) was dean of Canterbury and the author of several popular hymns, including "Come, Ye Thankful People, Come." He was also "an ardent advocate of the critical principles formulated by those who, like Lachmann, had worked for the 'demolition of the unworthy and pedantic reverence for the received text, which stood in the way of all chance of discovering the genuine word of God'" (p. 174; the embedded quote is from Alford's The Greek New Testament with a Critically Revised Text).

I'm thankful for this new resource to add to my library and to use, no doubt to what would have been Alford's chagrin, to defend the received text.